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Digital forensics assignment

Part 1 Misleading file extension

Criminals often simply change the extensions of files to mislead computer forensics investigators. But the wrong file extension is difficult know exactly what the original file type was. To find out the true type of a file you could use a hex editor. 

1. Download secret.jpg 

1. Open it with the built in Windows Photos app.  What do you see?

1. Use Hex Workshop (or other hex editor) and try to find out the original file type.

 

Part 2 Use Volatility to analyse memory dump

1. Download volatility at:

https://www.volatilityfoundation.org

1. Download windows.raw from Canvas

1. Study an example of volatile memory analysis at:

https://medium.com/@zemelusa/first-steps-to-volatile-memory-analysis-dcbd4d2d56a1

1. Learn about the memory dump:

0. From which OS is this dump made from, make a screenshot to support your answer.

0. Which process were running when the dump was made, make a screenshot.

0. What are the network connections, which connections are still open? Make screenshots to support your answer.

0. Go through the manual of volatility and try at least two options. The more options the better of course. Document your findings with the command/parameters you used and the outputs. Make screenshots to support your answer.

Part 3 Data acquisition

1. Use dd, or dcfldd to aquire an image from a USB drive. Make a screenshot with the command you used and output results.

1. Use Foremost to recover some files that you delete. Make a screenshot with command you used and output results.

1. Use FTK to capture the memory of your PC.

1. Use Autopsy to analyse the images you captured in step 3. Write a short report on what information you can find. For privacy reasons, you may erase or hide some personal data when making screenshots.

Threat analysis assignments

Note 1 : if you will export files from the captures, you’d better practice in a virtual environment. There is a chance that your PC is infected by the malware!

Note 2: You should report what you found and also more importantly
how
you found the answers. Explain your line of thought: why certain filters were used, why you looked into certain packet for certain information, how you got the information that you were looking for etc. Only providing answers/screenshots to the questions will be grades as insufficient!

Part 1

You noticed that there is some bittorrent traffic in the network of your organization. Torrent traffic is not necessarily malicious, however, it often associated with sharing copyright-protected content. You would like to find out more information about the torrent content.

Go to Canvas and download and open the packet capture traffic_analysis_1.pcap. Answer the following questions. Put your answers as well as how you find out the answers in a short report.

1. Find out the following information about the PC that generates torrent traffic:

0. IP address

0. MAC address

0. Windows user account

0. Windows version

1. At what time (in UTC) occurred the first torrent activity?

1. What torrent file was downloaded?

1. Can you find other torrent traffic?

1. What torrent file was shared by the torrent client? Which torrent client was used? (hint: check out info_hash value, convert URL encoded to Hexadecimal value, and then search google)

Part 2

You are analyzing the alerts generated by the IDS system and noticed that an executable malware was sent as an image.

Note: if the last digit of your student number is an odd number, take the following files:

1. traffic_analysis_2_odd.pcap

1. traffic_analysis_2_odd Alerts.jpg

Note: if the last digit of your student number is an even number, take the following files:

1. traffic_analysis_2_even.pcap

1. traffic_analysis_2_even Alerts.jpg

Answer the following questions. Put your answers as well as how you find out the answers in a short report.

1. How many clients do you see in this capture? Find out the information related to the clients, including their IP/MAC address and operating system. For windows clients, also find out their user accounts.

1. Which client is the victim?

1. How was the malware downloaded?

1. Export the malware and search the Internet to find out the name of the malware.

Part 3

Note: if the last digit of your student number is an odd number, take the following task:

1. An attack has been captured in traffic_analysis_3odd.pcapng. It is your task to find out what the attack is. Observe the packets and find out the IP address of the victim and the attacker. Write a short report on how the attack has happened and which techniques were used.

Note: if the last digit of your student number is an even number, take the following task:

1. One of the hosts in this capture traffic_analysis_3even.pcapng has been infected with malware. It is your task to find out the information about the victim and what had happened. Write a short report on your findings.

Part 4

Look for a phishing/spam email from your mailbox. Download the header and make some analysis on: the sender, receiver, mail servers, SPF, DKIM, DMARC, etc. Discuss the evidence that you find out.

Threat hunting using Mitre enterprise ATT&CK

Introduction

Enterprise ATT&CK is a framework from Mitre intended to describe and communicate a threat quickly and briefly. ATT&CK describes the following tactics:

(https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/enterprise/):

1. Reconnaissance

1. Resource development

1. Initial access

1. Execution

1. Persistence

1. Privilege escalation

1. Defense evasion

1. Credential access

1. Discovery

1. Lateral movement

1. Collection

1. Command and control

1. Exfiltration

1. Impact

As the word tactic might suggest, not every tactic needs to be used by a threat. You will see that several tactics can be used together to achieve a certain goal. At ATT&CK there is a so-called navigator (https://mitre-attack.github.io/attack-navigator/) which displays available techniques and sub-techniques for each tactic. As with tactics, an attacker can use multiple techniques to achieve a specific goal. For example, initial access tactic can use both drive-by compromise and phishing.

Each technique is actually an abstraction of a set of possible practices that an attacker can use. For more information about each technique, you can right-click on the technique in the navigator and choose “View technique”.

Assignment

At Canvas you can find a report that provides the technical analysis of attacks that are associated with Carbanak – a remote backdoor.

Based on the information provided in this report, you will map the activities involved to the ATT&CK framework. You will also think about how the use of this technique can be detected and mitigated in the future. In addition to the case provided to you, you may look up additional information about the incident yourself on the Internet if necessary. In that case, also provide the reference to the additional resources you used.

Follow the following guidelines when filling the tables:

1. (sub) Technique: give the ID and the name of the technique or the sub-technique that you identified’

1. How is this (sub-) technique used: describe in your own words about how this technique is used. Do NOT copy the description from Mitre ATT&CK.

1. Where did you find the info?: Provide page/line number in the report, or references to other resources.

1. Your suggestion on mitigations/detection: You may be inspired by Mitre ATT&CK for possible mitigation and detection advices. However, describe in your own words about your suggestion in the context of this threat; and motivate your suggestion. Do not copy the description from Mitre ATT&CK.

1. If you cannot find any information about the techniques used in certain tactics (even after search on the Internet), then you may leave it empty and indicate “no information can be found”.

1. Reconnaissance

Indicate in the table below about techniques that the adversary used to gather information for future operations.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info?

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

2. Resource development

Indicate in the table below about techniques used to establish resources that the adversary can use to support operations.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

3. Initial access

Indicate in the table below which techniques are used to gain initial access to systems.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

4. Execution

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to run malicious code.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

5. Persistence

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to maintain their foothold.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

6. Privilege Escalation

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to gain higher-level permissions.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

7. Defense Evasion

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to avoid being detected.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

8. Credential access

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to steal account names and passwords.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

9. Discovery

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to figure out the victim’s environment.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

10. Lateral movement

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to move through the environment.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

11. Collection

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to gather data of interest to their goal.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

12. Command and Control

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to communicate with compromised systems to control them.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

13. Exfiltration

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to steal data.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

14. Impact

Indicate in the table below the techniques that the adversary used to manipulate, interrupt, or destroy the systems and data.

(sub-)
Technique

How is this (sub-) technique used

Where did you find the info? (page/line number in the report, or references to other resources)

Your suggestion on mitigations

Your suggestion on detection

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