Take note of FIgure 3.1
Think about the biggest project you worked on or biggest company you worked in and identify 1 example of each data point in that figure
Value Streams See Appendix A1. Think multiple roles workign together to produce value
Processes Think Inputs to outputs
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List of figures
List of tables
Welcome to ITIL 4
About this publication
IT service management in the modern world
About ITIL 4
The structure and benefits of the ITIL 4 framework
The ITIL SVS
The four dimensions model
Key concepts of service management
Value and value co-creation
Organizations, service providers, service consumers, and other stakeholders
Products and services
Configuring resources for value creation
The service relationship model
Value: outcomes, costs, and risks
Utility and warranty
The four dimensions of service management
Organizations and people
Information and technology
Partners and suppliers
Value streams and processes
Value streams for service management
The ITIL service value system
Service value system overview
Opportunity, demand, and value
The ITIL guiding principles
Focus on value
Start where you are
Progress iteratively with feedback
Collaborate and promote visibility
Think and work holistically
Keep it simple and practical
Optimize and automate
Governing bodies and governance
Governance in the SVS
Service value chain
Design and transition
Deliver and support
Steps of the continual improvement model
Continual improvement and the guiding principles
ITIL management practices
General management practices
Information security management
Measurement and reporting
Organizational change management
Service financial management
Workforce and talent management
Service management practices
Capacity and performance management
IT asset management
Monitoring and event management
Service catalogue management
Service configuration management
Service continuity management
Service level management
Service request management
Service validation and testing
Technical management practices
Infrastructure and platform management
Software development and management
End note: The ITIL story, one year on
Appendix A: Examples of value streams
List of figures
The service value system
The service relationship model
Achieving value: outcomes, costs, and risks
The four dimensions of service management
The ITIL service value system
The ITIL service value chain
The continual improvement model
Heat map of the contribution of architecture management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of continual improvement to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of information security management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of knowledge management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of measurement and reporting to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of organizational change management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of portfolio management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of project management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of relationship management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of risk management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service financial management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of strategy management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of supplier management to value chain activities
Workforce and talent management activities
Heat map of the contribution of workforce and talent management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of availability management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of business analysis to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of capacity and performance management to value chain
Heat map of the contribution of change enablement to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of incident management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of IT asset management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of monitoring and event management to value chain activities
The phases of problem management
Heat map of the contribution of problem management to value chain activities
Release management in a traditional/waterfall environment
Release management in an Agile/DevOps environment
Heat map of the contribution of release management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service catalogue management to value chain activities
Simplified service model for a typical IT service
Heat map of the contribution of service configuration management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service continuity management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service design to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of the service desk to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service level management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service request management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of service validation and testing to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of deployment management to value chain activities
Heat map of the contribution of infrastructure and platform management to value chain
The software lifecycle
Heat map of the contribution of software development and management to value chain
List of tables
Examples of value for different types of stakeholder
Components of a service offering
Relationships between organizations
Overview of the guiding principles
The steps of the continual improvement model linked to the most relevant ITIL guiding
The ITIL management practices
Organizational change management activities
Examples of disaster sources, stakeholders involved, and organizational impact
Examples of value streams for incident resolution
Examples of value streams for software issues
Examples of value streams for creation of an IT service
Examples of value streams for new software development
Welcome to ITIL 4
At this new stage in the development of the IT industry, AXELOS is delighted to present ITIL 4, the latest
step in the evolution of IT best practice. By building on our experience and bringing fresh and forward-
looking thinking to the marketplace, ITIL 4 equips your business to deal with the challenges currently
faced by the industry.
The adoption of ITIL as the most widely used guidance in the world on IT service management (ITSM) will
continue with ITIL 4. It ensures continuity with existing ways of working (where service management is
already successful) by integrating modern and emerging practices with established and proven know-
how. ITIL 4 also provides guidance on these new methods to help individuals and organizations to see
their benefits and move towards using them with confidence, focus, and minimal disruption.
ITIL 4’s holistic approach raises the profile of service management in organizations and industries, setting
it within a more strategic context. Its focus tends to be on end-to-end product and service management,
from demand to value.
ITIL 4 is the result of a great amount of global research and development work across the IT and service
management industries; this work has involved active practitioners, trainers, consultants, vendors,
technicians, and business customers. The architect team has collaborated with the wider stakeholders
and users of ITIL to ensure that the content meets the modern requirements of continuity, innovation,
flexibility, and value.
ITIL training provides individuals with a structured approach for developing their competencies in the
current and future workplace. The accompanying guidance also helps organizations to take advantage of
the new and upcoming technologies, succeed in making their digital transformations, and create value as
needed for themselves and their customers.
ITIL Foundation is the beginning of your ITIL 4 journey. It will open your mind to the wider, more
advanced guidance provided in the other ITIL publications and training that will support your growth and
development. Welcome to the new generation of IT best practice!
AXELOS Global Best Practice
About this publication
ITIL Foundation is the first publication of ITIL 4, the latest evolution of the most widely adopted guidance
for ITSM. Its audience ranges from IT and business students taking their first steps in service
management to seasoned professionals familiar with earlier versions of ITIL and other sources of industry
ITIL 4 Foundation will:
provide readers with an understanding of the ITIL 4 service management framework and how it has
evolved to adopt modern technologies and ways of working
explain the concepts of the service management framework to support candidates studying for the ITIL
4 Foundation exam
act as a reference guide that practitioners can use in their work, further studies, and professional
We hope you will find it useful.
About the ITIL story
The guidance provided in this publication can be adopted and adapted for all types of organization and
To show how the concepts of ITIL can be practically applied to an organization’s activities, ITIL
Foundation follows the exploits of a fictional company on its ITIL journey.
This company, Axle Car Hire, is undergoing a transformation to modernize its services and improve its
customer satisfaction and retention levels, and is using ITIL to do this. In each chapter of the text, the
employees of Axle will describe how the company is improving its services, and explain how they are
using ITIL best practice to do this.
ITIL storyline sections appear throughout the text, separated by a distinct border.
Axle Car Hire
Axle Car Hire is a global company, with its headquarters based in Seattle. Axle was formed 10 years ago,
and currently employs approximately 400 staff across Europe, the US, and Asia-Pacific.
Initially, the company experienced strong growth and consistently high customer satisfaction ratings. For
the first six years, repeat business accounted for around 30 per cent of all bookings. Shareholders could
expect handsome quarterly dividends. However, over the past four years, the company has experienced
a downturn. Customer satisfaction ratings have consistently declined and repeat bookings are rare.
Competitors are offering new and innovative options to traditional vehicle hire. Car-pooling, ride-share,
and driverless cars are big draws. Customers have also come to expect online and app interfaces as
standard for the company’s services.
In this evolving market, Axle Car Hire faces an uncertain future. The board is keen to improve customer
satisfaction levels. They want to attract and retain customers, and improve the company’s bottom line.
They’ve appointed a new CIO, Henri. Henri was chosen for his experience in digitalized services and his
track record in successful, large-scale IT transformations. He understands the impact of digital service
offerings, not only for customer satisfaction levels, but also for employee retention rates.
Henri’s strong background in ITIL and ITSM means that he values ITIL certification, and his hiring policy
reflects this. Having worked with Design Thinking, DevOps, and Agile methodologies, he believes
sustainable business requires a blended approach to ITSM.
Henri is keen to see how his team can redefine the car-hire experience and ensure that Axle Car Hire is
the first choice for new and existing customers.
Meet the Axle employees
Here are four key employees of Axle Car Hire:
Henri Is the new CIO of Axle Car Hire. He is a successful business executive who’s prepared to shake
things up. He believes in an integrated approach to ITSM.
Su Is the Axle Car Hire product manager for travel experience, and has worked for Axle for the past five
years. Su is smart, meticulous, and passionate about the environment.
Radhika Is the Axle Car Hire IT business analyst, and it is her job to understand the user requirements
of Axle Car Hire staff and customers. She is inquisitive and energetic, and strives to maintain a positive
relationship with all her customers, both internal and external. Radhika works mostly on discovery and
planning activities, rather than in IT operations. She asks a lot of questions and is great at spotting
patterns and trends.
Marco Is the Axle Car Hire IT delivery manager. He is process-driven and continually references the ITIL
framework to help him manage positive service relationships. However, Marco has had little exposure to
a blended or collaborative approach to service management.
1.1 IT service management in the modern world
According to the World Trade Organization,1 services comprise the largest and most dynamic component
of both developed and developing economies. Services are the main way that organizations create
value for themselves and their customers. Almost all services today are IT-enabled, which means there
is tremendous benefit for organizations in creating, expanding, and improving their IT service
Technology is advancing faster today than ever before. Developments such as cloud computing,
infrastructure as a service (IaaS), machine learning, and blockchain have opened fresh opportunities for
value creation, and led to IT becoming an important business driver and source of competitive
advantage. In turn, this positions IT service management as a key strategic capability.
To ensure that they remain relevant and successful, many organizations are embarking on major
transformational programmes to exploit these opportunities. While these transformations are often
referred to as ‘digital’, they are about more than technology. They are an evolution in the way
organizations work, so that they can flourish in the face of significant and ongoing change. Organizations
must balance the need for stability and predictability with the rising need for operational agility and
increased velocity. Information and technology are becoming more thoroughly integrated with other
organizational capabilities, silos are breaking down, and cross-functional teams are being utilized more
widely. Service management is changing to address and support this organizational shift and ensure
opportunities from new technologies, and new ways of working, are maximized.
Service management is evolving, and so is ITIL, the most widely adopted guidance on IT service
management (ITSM) in the world.
1.2 About ITIL 4
ITIL has led the ITSM industry with guidance, training, and certification programmes for more than 30
years. ITIL 4 brings ITIL up to date by re-shaping much of the established ITSM practices in the wider
context of customer experience, value streams, and digital transformation, as well as embracing new
ways of working, such as Lean, Agile, and DevOps.
ITIL 4 provides the guidance organizations need to address new service management challenges and
utilize the potential of modern technology. It is designed to ensure a flexible, coordinated and integrated
system for the effective governance and management of IT-enabled services.
1.3 The structure and benefits of the ITIL 4 framework
The key components of the ITIL 4 framework are the ITIL service value system (SVS) and the four
1.3.1 The ITIL SVS
The ITIL SVS represents how the various components and activities of the organization work together to
facilitate value creation through IT-enabled services. These can be combined in a flexible way, which
requires integration and coordination to keep the organization consistent. The ITIL SVS facilitates this
integration and coordination and provides a strong, unified, value-focused direction for the organization.
The structure of the ITIL SVS is shown in Figure 1.1, and is repeated in Chapter 4, where it is described
in more detail.
The core components of the ITIL SVS are:
the ITIL service value chain
the ITIL practices
the ITIL guiding principles
The ITIL service value chain provides an operating model for the creation, delivery, and continual
improvement of services. It is a flexible model that defines six key activities that can be combined in many
ways, forming multiple value streams. The service value chain is flexible enough to be adapted to multiple
approaches, including DevOps and centralized IT, to address the need for multimodal service
management. The adaptability of the value chain enables organizations to react to changing demands
from their stakeholders in the most effective and efficient ways.
The flexibility of the service value chain is further enhanced by the ITIL practices. Each ITIL practice
supports multiple service value chain activities, providing a comprehensive and versatile toolset for ITSM
Figure 1.1 The service value system
The ITIL guiding principles can be used to guide an organization’s decisions and actions and ensure a
shared understanding and common approach to service management across the organization. The ITIL
guiding principles create the foundation for an organization’s culture and behaviour from strategic
decision-making to day-to-day operations.
The ITIL SVS also includes governance activities that enable organizations to continually align their
operations with the strategic direction set by the governing body.
Every component of the ITIL SVS is supported by continual improvement. ITIL provides organizations
with a simple and practical improvement model to maintain their resilience and agility in a constantly
1.3.2 The four dimensions model
To ensure a holistic approach to service management, ITIL 4 outlines four dimensions of service
management, from which each component of the SVS should be considered. The four dimensions are:
organizations and people
information and technology
partners and suppliers
value streams and processes.
By giving each of the four dimensions an appropriate amount of focus, an organization ensures its SVS
remains balanced and effective. The four dimensions are described in Chapter 3.
The ITIL story: The CIO’s vision for Axle
Henri: These days, the pace of industry change is rapid, with the term ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’ now
widely used. Companies such as Axle are competing with disruptors that include driverless cars and car
Service expectations have changed since Axle was created 10 years ago. Customers want immediate
access to services via apps and online services. Axle’s booking app is out of date, and our technology
isn’t keeping pace with changes in our service offerings.
My vision for Axle is that we become the most recognized car-hire brand in the world. We’ll continue to
offer outstanding customer service while maintaining competitive car-hire rates. After all, Axle is now
about more than just hiring a vehicle. We must focus on our customers’ whole travel experience.I
1 https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/serv_e.htm [accessed: 22 July 2019].
KEY CONCEPTS OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT
2 Key concepts of service management
A shared understanding of the key concepts and terminology of ITIL by organizations and individuals is
critical to the effective use of this guidance to address real-world service management challenges. To that
end, this chapter explains some of the most important concepts of service management, including:
the nature of value and value co-creation
organizations, service providers, service consumers, and other stakeholders
products and services
value: outcomes, costs, and risks.
These concepts apply to all organizations and services, regardless of their nature and underpinning
technology. But the first thing that must be outlined is the most fundamental question of all: What is
Definition: Service management
A set of specialized organizational capabilities for enabling value for customers in the form of
Developing the specialized organizational capabilities mentioned in the definition requires an
the nature of value
the nature and scope of the stakeholders involved
how value creation is enabled through services.
The ITIL story: Axle’s services
Su: At Axle, our service is travel experience. We provide this service to our customers to create
value both for them and for Axle. Service management helps us to realize this value.
The ITIL story: Axle’s customers
Here are three of Axle Car Hire’s frequent customers, whom you will meet as the story unfolds:
Ichika Is a university student on holiday with no fixed plans. She hopes to visit music festivals as
part of her travel experience. Apart from that, her travel is flexible. She is tech-savvy and quickly
adapts to new applications and solutions. She is interested in trying new and exciting digital
Faruq Is recently retired and typically holidays alone. He is thoughtful and enjoys learning about
and adopting new technology. Faruq often makes his travel plans on the go, as his needs can
change, based on personal or health considerations.
Amelia Is the facilities manager at an organic food distribution company called Food for Fuel. Their
head office is in central London, but many Food for Fuel consumers are in regional areas. This
means access by public transport is typically infrequent, unreliable, and expensive. Consequently,
Food for Fuel provides its sales staff with vehicles to enable them to conveniently and reliably visit
existing and potential customers.
2.1 Value and value co-creation
The purpose of an organization is to create value for stakeholders.
The term ‘value’ is used regularly in service management, and it is a key focus of ITIL 4; it must therefore
be clearly defined.
The perceived benefits, usefulness, and importance of something.
Inherent in this definition is the understanding that value is subject to the perception of the stakeholders,
whether they be the customers or consumers of a service, or part of the service provider organization(s).
Value can be subjective.
2.1.1 Value co-creation
There was a time when organizations self-identifying as ‘service providers’ saw their role as delivering
value to their customers in much the same way that a package is delivered to a building by a delivery
company. This view treated the relationship between the service provider and the service consumer as
mono-directional and distant. The provider delivers the service and the consumer receives value; the
consumer plays no role in the creation of value for themselves. This fails to take into consideration the
highly complex and interdependent service relationships that exist in reality.
Increasingly, organizations recognize that value is co-created through an active collaboration between
providers and consumers, as well as other organizations that are part of the relevant service
relationships. Providers should no longer attempt to work in isolation to define what will be of value to
their customers and users, but actively seek to establish mutually beneficial, interactive relationships with
their consumers, empowering them to be creative collaborators in the service value chain. Stakeholders
across the service value chain contribute to the definition of requirements, the design of service solutions
and even to the service creation and/or provisioning itself (see section 4.5).
The ITIL story: Value
Marco: We’re planning to release a generous new offering, giving an extra day of car hire with
Henri: However, we must remember that value means different things for different people. Axle has
a broad range of customers, and each of them has their own requirements for car hire. We need to
make sure that any changes to our services are actually providing some type of value to our
Ichika: To me, ‘value’ means freedom of movement. I want my travel to be easy, hassle-free, and
flexible. I opt in to mailing lists and subscri
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