Kinesiology CAP 5: Training Principles Note: Please delete the narratives below when submitting your CAP. Include numerals 1-8 to indicate where each new

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Kinesiology CAP 5: Training Principles

Note: Please delete the narratives below when submitting your CAP. Include numerals 1-8 to indicate where each new answer begins, and write in short answer/paragraph style as appropriate.

Sharon is a starter on her high school volleyball team. She’s a strong server, regularly serving aces, so her coach usually puts her into the rotation right before the team needs to score a few points off some good serves.  Sharon has always loved sports; she picks them up quickly, and it is easy for her to gain strength and aerobic capacity after working out in the right ways for just a few practices.

Even though she’s a starter, Sharon has always had trouble with digs; she just doesn’t react quickly enough to spikes from the other team. Her coach noticed this and told her to practice by bumping the ball up high on the gym wall and then returning it quickly to the wall again. Sharon did this for 20 min every practice, but she couldn’t figure out how it was going to help her respond to spikes that came in at different angles and faster speeds. 

While Sharon worked on bumps and returns, the rest of the team did short sprints across the gym with periodic rests to improve their speed and endurance. About midway through the season, Sharon noticed that she felt winded after even short runs and dives toward the ball, and she felt as if she had less power in her legs. On her own, Sharon began doing interval training after practice. She would sprint a few times across the gym, recover for a few seconds, and then sprint again. Soon, she was able to run faster and take fewer rests, and she didn’t get nearly as winded during her games. 

After a few weeks of doing her self-directed interval training every day, Sharon felt as if she wasn’t improving anymore. She seemed to have plateaued. Was she working too hard? Not hard enough? Sharon wasn’t sure what she should do next. As playoffs approached, Sharon was just plain worn out. Her team’s practices and rigorous game schedule combined with her own everyday workout had been grueling. Sharon wondered why that hadn’t been enough. Why, when they were now entering the most important part of the season and had a chance to make it past regionals, was Sharon not at her best physical condition of the entire season?

1. When Sharon began her own interval training to improve her speed and endurance, which principle did she implement? 

2. There is no mention of the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of training in this case study. Therefore, Sharon does not achieve her peak level of fitness by the end of the season, when every game counts. Which principle is Sharon’s coach apparently not implementing? 

3. Sharon’s body adapts quickly to training. She shows great improvement after participating in a given program; she is a “responder.” This is an example of which principle? 

4. Sharon goes all-out every practice and never gives her body a break. By the end of the season, she is fatigued and not in her best physical condition.  This is an example of which principle?

5. Sharon’s coach did not understand this principle well enough to construct a good practice drill for reacting to spikes. Because a spiked ball will come in faster and at different angles than the ball Sharon is bumping to the wall, the drill Sharon was told to do will not improve her ability to respond to spikes. What principle does this reflect?

6. Make one suggestion that would help Sharon react to a spiked ball better.

7. Use table 9.2 to help you answer question “a.”

a. Sharon’s coach decided to implement a training program for the whole year. Sharon, an intermediate lifter, has a bench press 1-RM of 95 pounds and a squat 1-RM of 150 pounds. Identify the recommended values (%1RM and absolute weight) for strength development, muscle hypertrophy, muscular power, and muscular endurance for these two exercises using the tables below (fill in each blank cell).







Example: Bench Press: 50-60% 1RM; 47.5 – 57lb



















b. List three other types of resistance training that the coach should incorporate and a suggestion of how to incorporate each to help the girls reach peak fitness.

8. In approximately 500 words, explain the physiologic mechanisms that increase a) muscular strength and b) muscular hypertrophy. Are there any changes that should be made in the training program you are using for this course to achieve greater increases in strength and hypertrophy? Explain your answers using textbook and peer-reviewed research (Hint: the Supplemental Reading list attached to CAP 5 in Blackboard contains numerous articles that should help here!) Principles of Exercise Training
Chapter 9

CHAPTER 9 Overview

General principles of training

Resistance training programs

Anaerobic and aerobic power training programs

Muscular Strength
Maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate
Static strength
Dynamic strength (varying by speed and joint angle)

1-repetition maximum (1RM): maximal weight that can be lifted with a single effort
Start with proper warm-up.
Add weight until only one repetition can be performed.


Muscular Power
Rate of performing work
Explosive aspect of strength
Power = force × (distance/time)

More important than strength for many activities

Field tests not very specific to power

Typically measured with electronic devices

Figure 9.1

Muscular Endurance
Capacity to perform repeated muscle contractions or sustain a single contraction over time

Number of repetitions at given % 1RM

Increased through gains in muscle strength and changes in local metabolic and cardiovascular function


Table 9.1

Aerobic Power
Rate of energy release by oxygen-dependent metabolic processes

Maximal aerobic power: maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP
Synonyms: aerobic capacity, maximal O2 uptake,
Primary limitation: cardiovascular system
Testable in lab or estimable from variety of field tests


Anaerobic Power
Rate of energy release by oxygen-independent metabolic processes

Maximal anaerobic power: maximal capacity of anaerobic systems to produce ATP
Also known as anaerobic capacity
Maximal accumulated O2 deficit test
Critical power test
Wingate anaerobic test

General Principles of Training:
Principle of Individuality
Not all athletes are created equal.

Genetics affects performance.

Variations exist in cell growth rates, metabolism, and cardiorespiratory and neuroendocrine regulation.

Individual variation explains high versus low responders.

General Principles of Training:
Principle of Specificity
Exercise adaptations are specific to mode and intensity of training.

Training program must stress the most relevant physiological systems for a given sport.

Training adaptations are highly specific to type of activity, training volume, and intensity.

General Principles of Training:
Principle of Reversibility
Use it or lose it.

Training improves strength and endurance.

Detraining reverses gains.

General Principles of Training:
Principle of Progressive Overload
Must increase demands on body to make further improvements.

Muscle overload: Muscles must be loaded beyond normal loading for improvement.

Progressive training: As strength , resistance or repetitions must  to further  strength.

General Principles of Training:
Principle of Variation
Also called principle of periodization

Systematically changes one or more variables to keep training challenging.
Intensity, volume, and/or mode
–  volume,  intensity
–  volume,  intensity

Macrocycles are composed of mesocycles.

Resistance Training:
Strength, Hypertrophy, and Power
Should involve concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric contractions.
CON strength is maximized by inclusion of ECC.
ECC benefits action-specific movements.

Exercise order matters.
Large muscle groups before small, multijoint before single, high intensity before low

Rest periods are based on experience.
Novice, intermediate lifters: 2 to 3 min between sets
Advanced lifters: 1 to 2 minutes between sets

Resistance Training:
Static-Contraction Resistance
Muscle force without muscle shortening

Also called isometric training

Early promise
But later evidence did not support early findings.
Isometric training is nonetheless still popular.

Ideal for immobilized rehab situations

Resistance Training:
Free Weights Versus Machines
Free weights (constant resistance)
Tax muscle extremes but not midrange.
Recruit supporting and stabilizing muscles.
Are better for advanced weightlifters.

May involve variable resistance.
Are safer, easier, more stable, better for novices.
Limit recruitment to targeted muscle groups.

Figure 9.2

Resistance Training:
Dynamic Eccentric Training
Emphasis on ECC phase of contraction
In this phase, muscle’s ability to resist force is greater than with CON training.
Theoretically produces  strength gains versus CON.

Early ECC versus CON research equivocal

More support from recent studies
ECC + CON workouts maximize strength gains.
ECC is important for muscle hypertrophy.

Resistance Training:
Variable-Resistance Training
Resistance  in weakest ranges of motion,  in strongest ranges.

Muscle works against higher percentage of its capacity at each point in range of motion.

Serves as the basis for several popular machines.

Figure 9.3

Resistance Training:
Isokinetic Training
Movement at a constant speed
Angular velocity can range from 0°/s to 300°/s.
Strong force is opposed by more resistance.
Weak force is opposed by less resistance.

Resistance from electronics, air, or hydraulics

Theoretically, maximal contraction at all points in range of motion


Resistance Training:
Also known as stretch–shortening cycle exercise
Uses stretch reflex to recruit motor units.
Stores energy during ECC, releases during CON.
Example: Perform deep squat to jump to deep squat.

Proposed to bridge gap between speed and strength training

Figure 9.4

Resistance Training:
Electrical Stimulation
Current passed across muscle or motor nerve
Is ideal for recovery from injury or surgery.
Reduces strength loss during immobilization.
Restores strength and size during rehab.

No evidence of further supplemental gains in healthy, training athletes

Resistance Training:
Core Training
Core: trunk muscles around spine and viscera
Abdominal muscles
Gluteal muscles, hip girdle
Paraspinal, other accessory muscles

Yoga, Pilates, tai chi, physioball

Proximal stability aided by distal mobility


Resistance Training:
Core Training (continued)
May decrease likelihood of injury.

Increases muscle spindle sensitivity.
Permits greater state of readiness for joint loading.
Protects body from injury.

Core musculature contains mostly type I fibers, responds well to multiple sets and high reps.

Anaerobic and Aerobic
Power Training
Train sport-specific metabolic systems.

Design programs along a continuum from short sprints to long distances.
Sprints: ATP-PCr (anaerobic)
Long sprint, middle distance: glycolytic (anaerobic)
Long distance: oxidative (aerobic)

Anaerobic and Aerobic
Power Training: Interval Training
Repeated bouts of high/moderate intensity interspersed with rest or reduced intensity
More total exercise performed by breaking into bouts
Improved glucose control, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function
Sets, reps, time, distance, frequency, interval, rest

Set 1: 6 x 400 m at 75 s (90 s slow jog)
Set 2: 6 x 800 m at 180 s (200 s jog-walk)


Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval Training (continued)
Is appropriate for all sports and activities.

For given sport, first choose mode, then adjust.
Rate of exercise interval
Distance of exercise interval
Number of repetitions and sets per training session
Duration of rest and active recovery
Type of activity during active recovery
Frequency of training per week

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Exercise Interval Intensity
Determined by duration/distance or % HRmax

Duration and distance more practical
One method: Use best time at set distance and adjust duration by desired intensity.
Intensity depends on fitness, sets, reps, and so on.
ATP-PCr system training: ~ 90% to 98% intensity
Anaerobic glycolytic training: ~ 80% to 95% intensity
Aerobic oxidative training: ~ 75% to 85% intensity



Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Exercise Interval Intensity (continued)
% HRmax a better index of physiological stress
HRmax determined by lab test, all-out run
ATP-PCr training: ~ 90% to 100% HRmax
Anaerobic glycolytic training: ~ 85% to 100% HRmax
Aerobic oxidative training: ~ 70% to 90% HRmax

Heart rate monitors helpful for recording HR for duration of workout

Figure 9.5

Figure 9.6

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Distance of the Interval
Determined by requirements of activity

Sprint training: 30 to 200 m (even 400 m)

Distance training: 400 to 1,500+ m

Repetitions and Sets per Session
Largely sport specific

Short, intense intervals  more repetitions and sets

Longer intervals  fewer repetitions and sets

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Duration of Rest Interval
Dependent on how rapidly athlete recovers
Based on HR recovery (fitness and age dependent)
<30 years: HR should drop to 130 to 150 beats/min. >30 years: Subtract 1 beat for every year over 30.

For active recovery between sets, HR <120 beats/min Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Activity During Rest Interval Exercise intensity   recovery intensity  With better fitness,  intensity or  rest duration Land training: slow or rapid walk or jog Swimming: slow swimming or total rest Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Frequency of Training Dependent on purpose of interval training World-class runner: 5 to 7 times per week Swimmers: interval training every workout Team sports: 2 to 4 times per week Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Group Exercise Training Variety of options for cardiovascular, strength, and flexibility training Equivalent health benefits  HDL, lean muscle mass  fasting glucose, LDL, triglycerides, fat mass Improved satisfaction, enjoyment, motivation 40 Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Continuous Training Training without intervals Targeting oxidative, glycolytic systems High or low intensity High intensity near race (85% to 95% HRmax) Low intensity: long, slow distance training 41 Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Long, Slow Distance (LSD) Training Training at 60% to 80% HRmax (50% to 75% V•O2max) Popular, safe Near race pace Main objective: distance, not speed 15 to 30 mi/day, 100 to 200 mi/week Less cardiorespiratory stress Greater joint and muscle stress (overuse injuries) Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Fartlek Training Pace varied from sprint to jog at discretion Continuous training + interval elements Used primarily by distance runners Fun, engaging, variable Supplement for other types of training Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval-Circuit Training Combined interval and circuit training Circuit length 3,000 to 10,000 m Interval stations every 400 to 1,600 m Stations involving strength, flexibility, or endurance Jogging, running, or sprinting between stations Often in park or countryside High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Can dramatically improve aerobic capacity in untrained people. Four to six 30 s sprints followed by 3 min rest Benefits for people with busy schedules Trained people can benefit by replacing 10% to 15% of training volume with HIIT.

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