Running Header: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1
THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 5
Week 3: Motivation and Emotion Across Cultures
Take a moment to consider your motivation for taking this course or, more broadly, why you are pursuing an education. Perhaps you are curious about different cultures and psychology, or perhaps you had to take this course as part of your degree program. Perhaps you need a degree to fulfill your career ambition or to have more opportunities in your current job or field. Maybe you come from a background where it is expected that you get a college degree or, by contrast, are propelled by the desire to be the first in your family to achieve that milestone. Consider how easy it is to imagine these different motivations, and likely how many other motivators there are. If individuals in one situation are motivated in such a variety of ways, think of the world of potential ways that motivation varies across cultures.
Similarly, cultures have a wide range of standards for experiencing emotions, the other major topic this week. Yet, by definition, emotion can run deep and create assumptions that our way of thinking or feeling is the “correct” way. That is also true of motivation. Despite ample evidence, demonstrated in the simple example of why you and your colleagues are in this course, people tend to view their own ideas about motivation and what motivates them as the most credible ones.
As with differences in views of time that you explored in Week 2, motivation and emotion can be highly charged issues between individuals and groups. To continue exploring cultural influences in our everyday world—and pushing ourselves toward greater cultural sensitivity and critical thinking—this week, we examine cross-cultural perspectives in motivation, behavior, and emotion.
Note: Watch for “Just in Time” links for the Learning Resources, Discussion, and/or Assignment this week. When you see a “Just in Time” link, hover to get helpful tips or other guidance for completing your best coursework.
· Analyze motivation from a cultural perspective
· Differentiate the experience of emotion across cultures
· Apply concepts of cross-cultural psychology
· Demonstrate an understanding of cross-cultural perspectives on motivation, behavior, and emotion
Main Discussion: Motivation, Culture, and the Workforce
What motivates you? Pause to consider that question as it is key to this Discussion. For example, are you driven by the need for security, duty, recognition, self-actualization, or something else? What influence does culture have on shaping those motivations within you?
Most likely from your life experiences, you are already aware that what motivates you may not be the same as what motivates someone else, especially someone from a different cultural background. Motivational theory can be applied in many settings, from family to school to work situations. In this Discussion, you will focus on work-based experiences. Begin reflecting on times and situations from any kind of work setting when you have found yourself puzzled—or downright frustrated—by the attitudes, priorities, and behavior of other people with whom you work. You will research work-based differences that are a result of culture. For this Discussion, you will analyze motivations and aspirations in the workplace from a cross-cultural perspective.
· Review the reading in Chapter 7 of the course text, focusing on the different motivational theories, behaviors, and applications. Also, review other Week 3 Learning Resources that can help you prepare for this Discussion, including those listed as Optional Resources.
· Based on the types of motivation discussed in the resources, consider the role of motivation in the workplace and different attributes that promote and support a productive workforce.
· Identify two cultures that have motivational styles that are different from each other and reflect on how those styles influence workplace behavior. You may draw from your own experiences, but keep in mind the focus in this course on supporting your viewpoints with evidence. As needed, find additional resources to support your comparison. Note your resources should be scholarly and from a respected source ).
By Day 3
Post a response that includes the following:
· Identify two cultures that have distinctly different motivational styles and compare the motivational styles. Provide resources to support your analysis.
· Describe an example that illustrates how each motivational style influences an individual’s behavior in the workplace.
· Take a position on which style makes for a “better” workforce, and explain your reasoning.
· Explain insights you have gained about how culture influences motivation and work behavior that can help you be more understanding of, and work more effectively with, fellow employees, now or in the future.
Note: Be sure to support the responses within your initial Discussion post (and in your colleague reply) with information obtained from the assigned Learning Resources, including a reference list for sources used. For information regarding how your Discussion will be evaluated, please review the grading rubric located in the Course Information area of the course.
By Day 5
Respond to at least one of your colleagues and respond in one or more of the following ways:
· Ask a probing question and provide insight into how you would answer your question and why.
· Ask a probing question and provide the foundation, or rationale, for the question.
· Expand on your colleague’s posting by offering a new perspective or insight.
· Agree with a colleague and offer additional (new) supporting information for consideration.
· Disagree with a colleague by respectfully discussing and supporting a different perspective.
Support your reply to a colleague’s post with at least one reference (textbook or other scholarly, empirical resources). You may state your opinion and/or provide personal examples; however, you must also back up your assertions with evidence (including in-text citations) from the source and provide a reference.
Important Note: For all Main Discussions in this course, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleague’s postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!
Assignment: Sensitivity Training
Emotion has been debated, analyzed, and researched across disciplines. Emotions are universal phenomena for humans, and yet culture is very much at play in the emotional world. The norms of culture and society affect how emotions are experienced. Consequently, different cultures with different norms can express, perceive, react to, and regulate emotion in very different ways.
In this Assignment, you will imagine the needs of a person traveling to another country for a business meeting and to attend the funeral of a business colleague in that country and culture. You will research a country and culture of your choice. Then you will propose a sensitivity training course for the business traveler that will address typical responses within the focus culture to the emotional experience of death, typical death rites or funeral customs within the culture, and how using the training can help in understanding the culture better.
· Review the Week 3 Learning Resources that relate to emotion. Pay special attention to Chapter 6 in the course text, focusing on emotion recognition, preceding events, emotional expression and display rules, and emotions in cross-cultural contexts. Also review the article “Cultural Similarities and Differences in Display Rules” in the Learning Resources.
· Explore the website eDiplomat.com in the Learning Resources and select a country to complete this Assignment.
· Explore the website Funeralwise in the Learning Resources and search for information on death rites and funeral customs that relate to your selected country. Focus on the dominant culture, such as the dominant customs or religion, that informs the emotional response to death and death rites/funerals in your selected country.
· Conduct your own research in the Walden Library and other sources appropriate for the selected country and the emotional situation of a death and death rites/funeral. (Refer to the Week 3 Optional Resources for additional sources of information to consider.) Keep in mind your research focus is on the emotional experience and expression in this situation. For this case, the preceding and contributing events would include religion and cultural beliefs about death. Look for information and analysis on cultural display rules.
· To prepare for the business meeting that is separate from the funeral, use the Learning Resources to search for key information about customs and etiquette of the selected country to include in your sensitivity training course. In particular, look for any mourning customs that would be important for the business traveler to know.
· Review the Walden Writing Center PowerPoint template for guidance in preparing your Assignment.
By Day 7
Submit a PowerPoint presentation of 6–10 slides that is part of a cultural sensitivity training course. Address the following points in preparing your presentation:
· Create a title slide with the name of the country you selected and the purpose of the cultural sensitivity training course.
· Briefly describe the selected country and its dominant culture.
· Summarize key points of difference between your culture and the selected country in terms of death rites/funerals and mourning customs.
· Summarize key points of difference between your culture and the selected country in terms of emotional experience and emotional display in response to death and death rites/funerals.
· Provide general cultural sensitivity suggestions and recommendations for business travelers to your selected country.
· Summarize the importance of cross-cultural understanding of emotional expressions around an event such as death.
· List references in APA style for all information in your cultural sensitivity training course.
Note: Be sure to support your Assignment with specific references to the Learning Resources, additional resources you researched for your country, focus situation, and any other applicable resources. Provide a reference list for resources you used for this Assignment.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
· Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
· Click the Week 3 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
· Click the Week 3 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
· Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
· If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
· Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Shiraev, E. B., & Levy, D. A. (2017). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications (6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
· Chapter 6, “Emotion” (pp. 168–192)
· Chapter 7, “Motivation and Behavior” (pp. 195–219)
These chapters consider similarities and universals in emotion and the cross-cultural expression, evaluation, and judgment of emotions, as well as the nature of motivation, human behavior, and different psychological theories of motivation. Note that both chapters are the focus of the Week 3 Test for Understanding.
Cultures and belief systems are part of human life. Person whether he is living in the northern hemisphere or southern hemisphere the environment where he lives affects his living style and psychology. Critically analysis of the beliefs, values, and behavior of a person can be very helpful in knowing how the climate is affecting the thinking of an individual in a society. I live in the Dominican Republic and the culture; values and beliefs of my country are different from others. The division of society is based on racial and social factors which divide the nation into three categories. The upper-class family is white-skinned and is descended from Europe while lower-class families are descended from Africa and are black-skinned. The majority of the population is of mixed origin and are called Mulattoes and fall in the category of the middle working class.
Being a country of mixed culture, the values of people vary from place to place but in general Dominican people are friendly, welcoming, and humorous. The effect of various cultures is evident in the food, taste of music, religious classes, and family units. Merengue and bachata dance are cultural dances of the Dominican Republic. At parties, dancing is a compulsory activity in the culture, unlike many other cultures where dancing is prohibited. Merengue is considered as one of the forms of Latin American dances that came with the Latin Americans to the republic. It is a combination of two dance forms that emerge from different cultures: African and French (Brown, 1999). The dance has changed its original form with time. Initially, the dance did not include a couple rather it was a dance in a circle. Besides this nowadays hips movement is common in Merengue which was not part of the original dance form. As it is evident from the cultural dance and its transformation that culture is affecting almost everything just like it has done to the dance. Likewise, human psychology is affected by the cultures with time hence leading to changes in values and cultures (Sattler et al.,2002).
Family structure in the Dominican Republic is extended family, unlike the nuclear family system which is becoming famous in the west. Extended families contain more people in a family including parents and grandparents. It is considered very disrespectful to leave one’s family and live in a nuclear system. This is the value built-in by the culture in the mind of the people regarding respecting and staying connected to the roots. In the upper and middle classes male is the head of the family and is responsible for all the important decisions. The marriages in these settings are civil and church marriages. The Female is responsible for conveying the message to the relevant family members. She is considered the pillar of the house with love and moral support. In lower-class families unlike upper-class women is head of the family since the male is often not in the household. Consensual marriages are common in this class. Collectivism is important for the Dominican Republic as the cross-culture psychology of the area is based on working as a group and do not promote individualism (Schumacher, 2010).
The Dominican Republic is comprised of two distinct cultures: African and European cultures. In 1493 for the first time, Europeans settled in the Dominican Republic so it is highly influenced by the Spanish language, and the culture of the republic also roots back in Spain. Once the Europeans settled in the area, they imported African laborers to work in mines leading to the settlement of new African culture in the area. The two-culture merged and emerged as a new republic with its own culture and customs called the Dominican Republic. Furthermore, talking about the power distance in the country people are aware of the system and how it works. People accept the hierarchy and know their position and they do not expect justification for the order. It will not be wrong to say that the Dominican Republic is a hierarchical society (Shiraev & Levy, 2016). Furthermore, the country has a practical approach to uncertainty avoidance. People are plan-focused and they are ready to counter any risk that may encounter in the future. Dominicans are innovative and have acceptance regarding new ideas in any sphere of life. As Dominicans have accepted various cultures in history, accepting new ideas is not a big deal for them. Acceptance may be societal, cultural, natural, or business-related is the innate character of Dominican culture (caNtisaNo et al., 2014).
The cultural syndromes that persist in Dominican Republic are Ataques de Nervios and Nervios. These syndromes are related to sadness and anxiety. Symptoms include headache, weight loss, and emotional imbalance. These are the disease that emerged due to societal causes including conflicts in families and society. These syndromes are more common in females. Studies showed that Dominican women are vulnerable to such stress conditions due to economic and social difficulties that they face in daily to day life. In lower-class families’ women is the head of the family and lack of emotional and social support and high responsibility are the main cause of the syndromes (Nogueira et al., 2015).
In short, it can be said that the Dominican Republic is a country that focuses on collectivism and values family, culture, and language. The Dominican Republic has a versatile culture that has its beauty and includes people from different origins, Europe, and Africa. Cultural dance, language, and extended family systems are core values of the country and people accept the hierarchy system without justification. Racial and social values are very effective in shaping the country and the culture and the mindset of its people. Dominicans are people who value their culture yet are open to new ideas.
Brown, I. Z. (1999). Culture and customs of the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Publishing Group.
caNtisaNo Jorge, N., Rimé, B., & Muñoz-Sastre, M. T. (2014). The Social Sharing of Emotions (SSE) in the Dominican Republic’s Cultural Context: Autobiographical Descriptive Data. Universitas Psychologica, 13(2), 457-466.
Schumacher, G. (2010). Culture care meanings, beliefs, and practices in the rural Dominican Republic. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(2), 93-103.
Sattler, D. N., Preston, A. J., Kaiser, C. F., Olivera, V. E., Valdez, J., & Schlueter, S. (2002). Hurricane Georges: A cross-national study examining preparedness, resource loss, and psychological distress in the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and the United States. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(5), 339-350.
Foucault, D. C., & Schneider, B. H. (2009). Parenting values and parenting stress among impoverished village and middle-class small city mothers in the Dominican Republic. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(5), 440-450.
Shiraev, E. B., & Levy, D. A. (2016). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications. Routledge.
Nogueira, B. L., Mari, J. D. J., & Razzouk, D. (2015). Culture-bound syndromes in Spanish speaking Latin America: the case of Nervios, Susto and Ataques de Nervios. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 42, 171-178.