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The four metaparadigms of nursing include person, environment, health, and nursing (Utley, 2018). According to Utley (2018), “the metaparadigm concepts of person, environment, health, and nursing grounds the theories and provides a common structure” (p. 20). The metaparadigm concepts provide a framework for nursing as a discipline. Taking into consideration the person, their environment, their health, and the practice of nursing itself, the metaparadigm considers everything that goes into caring for a patient. It provides a foundation for applying the essential skills nurses must possess.

The personal theory I have developed in weeks 2 and 5 is aromatherapy (concept A) reduces (proposition) chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) (concept B). My personal theory has all four components of the metaparadigm of nursing. The theory has the components of environment and health as it involves changing the environment for the patient by using aromatherapy, which directly leads to better health outcomes. This is evident because a systemic review by Dilek and Necmiye (2020) suggested that inhalation of aromatherapy reduced the severity of CINV. Moreover, aromatherapy also “stimulates the central nervous system through inhalation and helps the formation of positive emotions or elimination of negative emotions” (Dilek & Necmiye, 2020, p. 1). The theory also includes the component of the nursing aspect because the nurse is actively in touch with the patient’s condition and needs by eliminating the patient’s uncomfortable feelings of nausea using aromatherapy. This also demonstrates that the theory has the human or person component as well because the nurse listens, understands, and respects the patient’s needs. According to Leslie & Lonneman (2016), to establish a trusting relationship between the nurse and patient, the nurse must meet the needs of the patient, respects the patient, and be a reliable person to the patient.


Metaparadigm concepts comprise the central issues in a discipline. Fawcett has named person, health, environment, and nursing as the four main concepts of nursing that need to be comprehensively defined. The Human Caring Theory is significant because of its focus on the spiritual dimension of human beings. The aim of this study was to comparatively explain three of the main metaparadigm concepts of nursing in the Human Caring Theory and Persian mysticism, and find the similarities and differences that can help develop the theory and its application in societies with the atheistic point of view. This comparative documentary study was done in two phases. First, a concept analysis was performed to find the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concepts of human beings, environment, and health in the two fields of Persian mysticism and Jean Watson’s Human Caring Theory. Then they were apparently and deductively compared with each other. In spite of some similarities between the two perspectives, Persian mysticism was found to provide more comprehensive conceptualizations of the three main concepts of nursing (Nikfarid et al., 2018).

As I link the theory I developed in Weeks 2 and 5 in our short-term rehab unit, we were able to implement our definitions of the four metaparadigms of nursing throughout our interactions with Covid-19 positive patients and their families. Our definition of 
 was illustrated by treating our patients equally and recognizing each of our patient’s cultural differences as well as accepting and valuing them without judgment. Good listening skills were applied when communicating and interacting with our patients, especially during those times when visitations were restricted per CDC guidelines for infection control practices. The red zone covid nurses were able to demonstrate the metaparadigm 
 by using the holistic approach to patient caretaking. Rather than solely focusing on treating Covid-19, we realized that patients’ mental and spiritual health also needed to be assessed. We realized that our patients were mentally distraught and felt isolated and like a burden to us. Our entire 
team was able to demonstrate the metaparadigm of nursing. The nurse was able to exemplify the metaparadigm of the 
 through customized care. By utilizing our definitions of the four metaparadigms of nursing, our exemplary team was able to provide exceptional care for our well-deserved patients (Branch et al., n.d.). 

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