Revised Synthesis/Dessertation Development 6 Thank you for your submission. Please see embedded comments below in your synthesis paper. I want to make

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Thank you for your submission. Please see embedded comments below in your synthesis paper. I want to make sure you are on track to do well on the Topic 7 paper. Please note – this summary is a general reminder for all students just to reiterate the Topic 7 paper requirements and expectations. Below are some important points to help ensure your paper meets the requirements. PLEASE CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS:

A. Make sure you read the instructions for the Topic7 Enhanced Synthesis Paper AND the rubric that will be used to grade it, very carefully. Note from the instructions that the two main components of the content of your paper should be:

1. A Reflection (250-300 words) that discusses your revision process and how you incorporated your instructor’s feedback into the revised version. Similar to the format of an abstract, this section will receive its own page following the title page and preceding the Introduction.

2. Support for your identified themes with evidence from each article. Provide analysis of these findings to strengthen your narrative.

3. A discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn when the articles are taken together as a single entity. What is the overall message of the group of articles?

4. You will add TWO additional sources to support your themes from the Revised Synthesis Paper Supplemental Articles list.

Remember, you are revising this Topic 4 paper and adding content and corrections based upon the feedback from this assignment. Remember, the topic of the paper is Researcher Skills. To that end, ALL of your themes should be specific researcher skill. Also, you should include the two additional articles you found as supporting research that I mentioned above. You are simply using the additional articles to support your themes. The additional articles do not have to be included within each section.

This is the note I provide to all students as synthesis can be a very foreign concept. I have included some helps at the end of this message that explain synthesis if you are unfamiliar with it. Basically synthesis is combining. It is like combining two elements to form a compound in chemistry. Two components combine/react to form something entirely new. You will consider the themes together and come up with an overall statement of conclusions on what you think the overall message is. A SYNTHESIS IS NOT SIMPLY SUMMARIZING OR RECAPPING INFORMATION FROM THE ARTICLES OR RESTATING THEMES. You cannot simply regurgitate what the authors say. You have to dig deeper into the meaning.

B. Make sure you follow all APA formatting guidelines, and that your paper is ORGANIZED correctly. Specifically, your paper must have the following:

1. A TITLE PAGE, correctly formatted with a properly formatted Running head

2. An INTRODUCTION. DO NOT put “INTRODUCTION” as a heading of your introduction. Instead put the title of your paper, centered, and bold. Following a brief introduction to the paper to provide context and to hook the reader (supported by in-text citations), DO NOT introduce the articles by title or provide summaries of the articles (I know the directions say to but see my video why I say not to ) . Also, be sure your introduction includes a CLEARLY STATED PURPOSE AND THESIS STATEMENT. Below is an example (remember you must use your own words):

“The purpose of this paper is to review common themes related to researcher skills by examining the relationship of … (fill in your themes here with your own words here). A review of common themes identified in the analysis suggests that … (fill in with your thesis statement here)….”

SECTIONS. You must include a separate section for each common theme you identify. Each section should have a centered and bolded section heading. The section heading can just be the name of the theme that the section is about. The section would discuss what each article contributes on that theme (be sure to properly cite the articles as you discuss the information you get from them). Remember to include a synthesis in your paper. This is where you discuss the articles/themes taken together as a single entity, and what you determine the overall message to be. REMEMBER, A SYNTHESIS IS NOT SIMPLY SUMMARIZING INFORMATION FROM THE ARTICLES OR RESTATING THE THEMES. You should NOT have a separate section for synthesis. Synthesis should occur throughout your document.

CONCLUSION section. This is where you will very briefly recap all the major points you made in your paper. The conclusion needs to make the paper come full circle. Think of it as a mini condensed version of the paper, hitting major points and showing that the purpose/thesis, stated in the introduction, has been accomplished. Reaffirm the conclusion you have come to base on the analysis/synthesis you did. Include future recommendations. I would begin by looking at some of the limitations and generate your recommendations from there. Use citation in the conclusion to make a strong connection to the research discussed in the paper.

Make sure your paper is properly supported throughout with citations of sources (in this case the sources are the 3 articles being examined and the two supporting articles you found) for the information you provide, and the points your make. There should be a reference for every source cited in your paper. Make sure your in-text citations, references, and the references page are correctly formatted according to APA guidelines.

The last thing I want you to focus on is writing mechanics (sentence structure, grammar, etc..). This especially is something a tutor could help with (along with APA formatting) if necessary. Please proofread, and if you can, get someone else to proofread your paper as well.

Also, please take a look at, and familiarize yourself with, the rubric that will be used to grade your week 7 Synthesis paper so you can keep those elements in mind as you compose your paper.

Here are a few resources on SYNTHESISIZING that you may find helpful:

Drew University Synthesis Writing


Help…I’ve Been Asked to Synthesize!

Youtube Video: Synthesis Essay!? AAAAAHH!!!

 I hope that helps.
See more comments below

Researcher Skills

Rosaline Nixon

College of Doctoral Studies, Grand Canyon University

RES820A: The Literature Landscape: Organizational Leadership

Dr. Davis

February 27, 2022,

Researcher Skills

Over the years, the number of doctorate students who graduate on time has decreased; hence has become a major concern among various Higher Education Institutions. This is a major concern, and the worrying trend is attributed to various difficulties associated with writing a dissertation. Student learning success is important in higher education. One of the major skills at the doctorate level is adequate research skill to meet the dissertation’s required standards, and a lack of the skills often causes a stall in education. In the three articles, the authors explore this issue and provide ways to complete their doctorate on time. The authors agree that feedback, supportive interactions, and proper time management are important in researching and completing the doctorate program. Comment by Mendi Davis: This is a nice “hook” to draw the reader in; however, is this your opinion or is there research that supports this? In scholarly writing, we need to avoid the use of personal opinion that is not supported with research and an accompanying in-text citation
Comment by Mendi Davis: Does your thesis statement accurately depict the topic of the paper of researcher skills?

Feedback Comment by Mendi Davis: You must align your themes to the topic and focus of the paper first and then orient your voice to SKILLS (very specific skills) relative to the researcher.

A skill is an ability to do a particular task well and have expertise in the area (in this case the task is research).

Identity is how someone defines themselves in a given setting or context (in this case student/faculty).

Efficacy is the belief in ones ability to carry out a task (in this case research). Three different definitions, three different questions, three different orientations to the information and discussion we present.

You need to orient your voice to SKILLS relative to the researcher. I want to you to examine all of your themes through this lens and revise as necessary.

the discussion here focuses on two skills of a researcher.

Therefore we need to center our focus on researchers and the skills they employ to carry out research.

This is an important shift in terms of how we are presenting and discussing each skill.

We are not talking about the skills relative to the articles and doctoral learners – we are talking about how each skill enables a researcher to carry out their work.

For example, if writing is a research skill – we talk about how writing enables a researcher to carry out their work.

Similarly, if seeking out feedback is a research skill – we talk about how seeking out feedback enables a researcher to carry out their work. What is the value of feedback to the research process such that a researcher would seek out feedback?

To add depth to the discussion we go in to the wider literature and use the two skills as key words in our search.

Go to Google Scholar for example, and type in: Writing, publishing research

And look for articles that talk about writing as part of the process of carrying out and publishing research – this gives the reader the foundation for understanding WHY the skill of writing is central to carrying out research such that this is a necessary skill supporting the research

Feedback entails the information and reactions about an individual’s actions or performance and is critical in ensuring the dissertation’s effective completion. The lack of effective and timely feedback impacts the student research and ability to complete their education. According to Lindsay 2015 supervisors should provide the students with relevant, meaningful and timely feedback that resonates with their written drafts. By giving meaningful feedback, the supervisor is supportive of their students, boosting their confidence and encouraging them in their writing. This ensures that the students get the necessary help and their issues are addressed on time. This contributes to the overall success of the student. Hence, supervisors need to offer support to the students through timely and relevant feedback. Student-faculty interaction is important as the supervisor is pivotal to the student’s success, learning experience, and student satisfaction. Lee et al., 2015 indicates that students sought out timely feedback from their supervisors and responsiveness to their questions that encouraged exploring new concepts during their writing. This supportive approach enables the students to develop themselves as academic writers and is critical for the student’s success. In addition, Klocko et al., 2015 denote that clear faculty expectations and consistent, constructive feedback are required.

One supervisor may approve a student’s writing while another may not; hence, expectations and comments should also be uniform across the faculty as this is frustrating and may confuse the student. Clear, realistic, and consistent expectations and feedback among the faculty are hence important for the student’s success. This ensures that the students can work on their dissertations and complete the doctorate within the recommended time.

Supportive Interactions

Establishing effective relationships during the doctorate program is important for timely completion and writing the dissertation. Engaging in scholarly relations such as student-faculty relations are important in the success of doctoral learners. The faculty forms a basis for the support of the students as it ensures they guide the students in doing their writing, reviewing it and approving it. According to (Lee et al., 2020), only 56.6 % of students finished their doctorate, with the lowest completion rates occurring in social sciences and humanities. Without the support of the faculty, the doctorate completion rate is low. Without an effective student-faculty relationship, it hinders the student from accessing timely and relevant responses that are important in their education. This causes setbacks in writing impacts the students’ performance, leading to delays in completing the doctorate, confusion in writing the paper, and attrition. The student-faculty relation is pivotal in the success of the doctorate students, and supervisors should ensure that they provide the students with the necessary help throughout their writing. Lindsay et al. 2015 indicate that the quality of the student-faculty relationship is crucial as it encourages the student and indicates that the supervisors believe in their ability. Supportive interactions ensure that the student can balance their personal lives, careers, and education, which are all important elements in their lives. In addition, the student-faculty relationship is important in boosting students’ confidence in their work. Extensive feedback and writing guidance provided by the supervisor ensures that the student is on the right track reducing feelings of uncertainty encouraging them to improve on their writings (Klocko et al., 2015). In addition student to student support interaction through peer writing and peer review groups contributed to the student’s success. The students could offer supportive feedback and encouragement to help them manoeuvre the challenges of writing a dissertation and the doctorate program. The interaction encourages them as they are assured that they are not alone in their challenges and offer them an opportunity to learn. Connectedness, belonging, and support was highlighted as essential variables in inspiring students to overcome obstacles, while the lack of supportive interaction was the most important factor in not finishing the PhD work, particularly during the dissertation phase. Hence, the authors agree that supportive interactions, effective relations, and collaboration are essential in the timely completion of the doctorate program and ensuring success in writing the dissertation to become scholarly writers. Comment by Mendi Davis: In-text citations must be formatted as per APA formatting. Please see the following link –

Time Management Comment by Mendi Davis: A common theme is one that is supported in all three articles. How did Lindsey (2015) support this theme?

Time management is another major theme that emerged from all three articles and indicates that the students require a lot of time to research, prepare and write their work. According to Klocko et al., 2015 the students may become anxious due to the uncertainty of the amount of work they need to put in their writing. It affects their capability to write; hence, if the students are more confident, and through supervisor support, they can improve their writing and research skills and reduce the time used for writing their projects. In addition, through proper planning and self-discipline, the students can complete their dissertation in time. Proper planning and setting out clear goals on what the student wants to achieve at a given time ensures that the students can manage their time, stay motivated to meet the set goals and balance all aspects of their lives. Supervisor must encourage their students to write throughout the project rather than differing till the end of the project. Time management includes both writing time and organizing abilities gained through self-discipline. Learners will need self-discipline and independence to succeed because of the variable time and schedule; hence they must be effective in communication and flexibility (Lee et al., 2020). Time management is a crucial component of student learning success. Persistence, self-efficacy, and active learning engagement are all skills that students need. Mentoring and faculty support enable the doctoral student to complete the PhD program by independently conducting, evaluating, and presenting research. Comment by Mendi Davis: I call this an “author said” statement. I want you to avoid these types of statements as they take away your own voice as a writer and give it back to whomever you are citing. Also, these statements tend to lead you to summary rather than synthesis. While not necessarily “wrong”, it can be a bad habit so at this point in your writing I encourage you to avoid them.
Comment by Mendi Davis: Citations?The importance of citations is to provide peer reviewed support for our statements.
The importance of the references is to provide complete attribution for these sources.
**VITALLY IMPORTANT – if there are no references listed for in-text citations, the portions of text for which there are citations but no references, are NOT COUNTED in support of our statements. Likewise if there are no citations yet references, the portions of text without citations are NOT COUNTED in support of your statements.
This means our statements become null and void in the context of the presentation which as you might imagine, can have disastrous effects when it comes to the overall point(s) we are attempting to present


The three authors agree that the dissertation process and research are essential in the timely completion of the doctorate program. The major factors that determine the students’ learning success include feedback, supportive interactions, and time management. Feedback is important in ensuring the students are aware of the requirements of the program, and it also ensures that they can effectively improve on their writing and build on their confidence. Supportive interactions at the faculty level are essential in the student’s success and contribute to higher rates of the completion of the program. Student to student interactions ensures that the students stay motivated and get a response from their peers encouraging throughout the process. Lastly, time management is essential. Without proper planning and self-discipline, it affects the timely completion of the program and the students learning success. Comment by Mendi Davis: This assignment is not about the articles. The articles are simply a resource to be used to write the paper. Comment by Mendi Davis: Even your conclusion needs to include in-text citations


Klocko, B. A., Marshal, S. M., & Davidson, J. F. (2015). Developing practioner-scholar doctoral candidates as critical writers. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 15(4). 21-31.

Lee, H., Chang, H., & Bryan, L. (2020). Doctoral students’ learning success in online-based leadership programs: Intersection with technological and relational factors. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(1), 61-81.

Lindsay, S. (2015). What works for doctoral students in completing their thesis? Teaching in Higher Education, 20(2). 183-196.

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